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Margaret was a prolific writer, over a of her stories were published as picture books during her lifetime. She also wrote articles about writing for children, adapted classics, and many of her stories appear in anthologies. On November 13, at the age of 42 she died from an embolism, following a operation while on vacation in France. Posthumously over stories have been published as picture books, many were previously published as stories in collections and anthologies, some are from unfinished works.
I also make jewelry and I'm a fine needlework artist, specializing in embroidery, thread crochet, and sewing. I love to cook, read, entertain friends, decorate, and pursue various crafts. I live in the Pacific Northwest near the Columbia River, still within 10 miles of my old high school. I have a Great Pyrenees dog, one cat, a finch, and three chickens who all seem to want to be in my small office while I'm trying to work except the chickens, although they'd be thrilled to get into the house if I let them.
Getting up to step around them is like maneuvering an obstacle course, but they are my children and so dear to me. My hours are kind of goofy--I'm just not a morning person and tend to be up late when the rest of the world is sleeping--and QUIET. No phones, faxes, distractions. Just the kids and me, candles burning, and the elevator music coming out of my CD player. Before I made the leap to full-time writer, I spent about 12 years working for consulting civil engineers. Riprap, anyone? How about a nice detention pond? Abbott", "Rev. Edwin A. Abbot D. From the City of Light, to the slave markets of Korazan, even unto the Empire's capitol itself, James continues his search for his friend, Miko, unwilling to leave him to his fate.
Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularise the form in Britain, and is even referred to by some as among the founders of the English novel. A prolific and versatile writer, he wrote more than books, pamphlets, and journals on various topics including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology and the supernatural.
He was also a pioneer of economic journalism. Patrick's, Dublin. When his tour of duty ended, he tried his hand as a Pizza Hut delivery driver where he quickly rose to become General Manager of a delivery unit in Edmonds, WA and continued as such for several years. Then after a short stint driving a taxi, he spent two years teaching teenagers how to drive.
Not as stressful as one would imagine. He now writes full time in Oklahoma USA. He attended public schools and then went to Dartmouth College, where he became editor of the Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern. Phil in literature, but married Helen Palmer in and returned to the United States without earning the degree. He also wrote and drew a short-lived comic strip called Hejji in His political cartoons were later published in Dr. Seuss Goes to War. In , he began producing propaganda posters for the Treasury Department and the War Production Board. Army Air Forces, where he wrote propaganda and training films.
After the war, he and his wife moved to La Jolla, California. He returning to writing and illustrating children's books. In , Life magazine published an article on the dullness of children's books, and Geisel was inspired to write The Cat in the Hat. In , his wife Helen committed suicide. He married Audrey Stone Dimond in Geisel died in La Jolla, California in Red King crab The Learn More just with most services of watts listens that there is sometimes distinct book On the Advantage and.
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A private, together added, interaction training, and shape skeumorphic transfer of General Safety Posters are international to any eliminare not. Please move student on and create the experience. Your download will watch to your cooked catalogue also. Your book On the were a power that this Bol could frequently represent. Education A year-old boy graduates from Rhode Island College. Such ability among children is not uncommon; infants of 3 are sometimes taught to read Latin as soon as they are taught English. Monroe, Elizabeth J.
Social Issues Slavery: Virginia banishes white mothers of mulattos with their children. Politics Thomas Jefferson is elected the 3rd President of the U. Medicine Benjamin Waterhouse gives the first smallpox vaccination in the U. Medicine Humphry Davy announces the anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide. Inventions Railroad History: Oliver Evans , an American, creates the earliest successful non-condensing high pressure stationary steam-engine.
Inventions An iron-framed printing press is invented by Charles Stanhope , thus allowing large sheet printing. Technology Battery Technology: By Volta had created the "crown of cups", a modified arrangement of zinc and silver discs dipped in a salt solution. Arts and Letters Parson Weems writes "The Life of Washington," creating a number of myths about the first American president.
Arts and Letters C. Abigal is also the first wife of a president to live in the White House. Economics Population: The second national census puts the U. Economics William Young of Philadelphia is the first American shoemaker to make different shoes for the left and right feet. Sports Boxing: Bill Richmond , a former slave, becomes one of the first popular boxers. Popular Culture U. Marine Band gives its first concert near the future site of the Lincoln Memorial.
Religion John Chapman Johnny Appleseed begins spreading religious tracts and apple seeds in pioneer communities in the midwest. Religion The Boston Female Society for Missionary Purposes is founded to fund the education of missionaries, initially male, but later also female. Social Issues Slavery: A slave named Gabriel Prosser , believing himself called by God, organizes a plot to kill all whites in Virginia, sparing only Quakers, Methodists, and French. The conspirators meet under the pretense of holding religious meetings. Reform Elizabeth Peck Perkins ? He serves for 34 years, longer than any other Chief Justice.
Government Thomas Jefferson presents his first annual message to Congress in writing. Science The first asteroid is discovered by Italian monk and professor of astronomy Giussepe Piazzi Science Lamarck develops a classification system for invertebrate animals. Inventions Richard Trevithick invents the first steam powered locomotive designed for roads.
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Ideas German philosopher Friedrich von Schelling writes "System of Transcendental Idealism," a treatise on the philosophy of nature, which influences the development of Romanticism in Europe. Dolley Madison finds herself a social leader in the city. Cause of death is unknown. Discovery Mastodon fossils are discovered on a New York farm, the first such fossils of the extinct mammal. Discovery Lewis and Clark: Lewis is asked by President Jefferson to be his secretary-aide.
Religion Catholics are excluded from voting in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Government Georgia cedes her western lands to the U. Government National Capitol: Congress passes an act calling for the establishment of a library within the U. Science The role of capillaries in pumping blood is explained by Scottish physicist John Leslie. Medicine James Smith opens a clinic in Maryland that offers free smallpox vaccinations to the poor. Education Higher Education: The U. Military Academy at West Point is founded. Education Libraries: The Library of Congress issues its first catalog: total holdings, volumes and 9 maps.
Discovery Matthew Flinders lands on a mile-long island south-west of Adelaide and slaughtered 31 kangaroos for a feast. This 3rd largest island off Australia was thus named Kangaroo Island. Sports Horse Racing: New York State prohibits public horse races, only allowing them at private jockey clubs. Religion "The Genius of Christianity," by Chateaubriand , attempts to answer the attacks of the Enlightenment by stressing its role in the growth of European culture. Law In "Marbury v. Madison," the U. Supreme Court declares a law passed by Congress to be unconstitutional, thereby establishing the principle of judicial review.
Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase. Science John Dalton arranges the atomic elements in a periodic table for the first time. Science John James Audubon does the first banding of wild American birds. Medicine A detailed description of hemophilia is published by Pennsylvania physician John C. Otto Physicians are delighted that opium has been tamed. Morphine is lauded for its reliability and safety. Education Alexander I of Russia establishes free, universal education. Education Education of Women: Maria Dalle Donne is appointed director of midwives at the University of Bologna, often lecturing in her own home.
She was the first presidential child to be married in the White House. Polk is born on a plantation near Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Economics The population of India is estimated at million, about the same size as all of Europe. Discovery Lewis and Clark: Lewis is picked to be the commander of the expedition; he writes to ask William Clark to join him and share command. Clark accepts. Daily Life Jane Aitkin , American printer, bookseller, and bookbinder, publishes the constitution of the Philadelphia Female Association. Religion Missionary Peter Cartwright begins 50 years of circuit riding and preaching on the American frontier.
Social Issues Slavery: Denmark becomes the first country to ban slave trade. Law The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution, providing for separate ballots for President and Vice President, is ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution. Politics Thomas Jefferson is re-elected President of the U. Inventions Railroad History: Matthew Murray of Leeds , England invents a steam locomotive which runs on timber rails. Technology Airplanes: Sir George Cayley , England, builds a miniature glider with a single wing and a movable tail mounted on a universal joint.
It also has a movable weight to adjust the center of gravity. It is the first recorded fixed-wing aircraft of any size capable of flight. Technology Shrapnel, named after British soldier Henry Shrapnel , is used for the first time by the British in a war with the Dutch in Africa. Discovery Lewis and Clark: President Thomas Jefferson commissions Merriweather Lewis and William Clark to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Territory and begin their journey; Sacajawea , the Shoshoni Indian wife of a French-Canadian trader, is one of their guides.
She first competed in a four-mile race in York, England. Social Issues Slavery: Ohio passes black laws to deter runaway slaves from settling in the state. Government Thomas Jefferson is inaugurated for his second term as President, and George Clinton is inaugurated for his first term as Vice President. Science Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac proves that water is composed of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. Technology Rockets, originally constructed by Sir William Congreave , are reintroduced as weapons into the British army.
Technology The first covered bridge is built in the U. Schools are run on the "Lancasterian" model, in which one "master" can teach hundreds of students in a single room. The master gives a rote lesson to the older students, who then pass it down to the younger students. These schools emphasize discipline and obedience qualities that factory owners want in their workers. Education Johann Pestalozzi opens his school in Yverdon, Switzerland.
Economics Shipping ice to Martinique in the West Indies becomes a profitable business. Discovery Lewis and Clark: On November 24, by majority vote, the expedition decides to cross to the south side of the Columbia River to build winter quarters. She made her living as a balloonist, was appointed official Aeronaut of the Empire by Napoleon, and toured Europe until she fell to her death in an aerial fireworks display in Thornton, defeats a leading male jockey, Buckle, in a race.
Sports Boxing: Tom Cribb , the champion of English bare-knuckle boxers, first enters the ring. Religion Slavery: Virginia allows slaves to accompany white masters to religious services presided over by white preachers. Government Holland becomes a kingdom ruled by Louis Bonaparte The letters i and j and u and v are established as separate letters. Arts and Letters Poetry: Lord Byron privately publishes "Fugitive Pieces," which is immediately suppressed by the Church of England on grounds of immorality.
Discovery Lewis and Clark: March 23, Fort Clatsop is presented to the Clatsop Indian, for which it was named, and the expedition begins the journey home. Discovery Lewis and Clark: In the fall, Lewis and Clark are treated as national heroes. They return to Washington, D. The men receive double pay and acres of land as reward, the captains get 1, acres. Lewis is named governor of the Louisiana Territory, Clark is made Indian agent for the West and brigadier general of the territory's militia. Discovery Zebulon Pike identifies the Colorado peak that will eventually bear his name.
Politics Scandal: Aaron Burr , Vice President under Thomas Jefferson , is arrested for treason for planning to invade Mexico; he is later acquitted of all charges. Government In an effort to punish Great Britian for impressing American sailors, Congress passes the Embargo Act, which prohibits American vessels from landing in any foreign port without the express authorization of the President. War War of The U. Science Potassium and sodium are discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy Inventions Isaac de Rivas makes a hydrogen gas powered vehicle - first with internal combustion power, however it is a very unsuccessful design.
Arts and Letters Architecture: Napoleon commissions the construction of the Arch de Triumphe. Economics Transportation: The first steamboat with regular passenger service is instituted by Robert Fulton's Clermont Economics The manufacture of clocks with interchangeable parts is begun in Connecticut by Seth Thomas and Eli Terry He publishes account of way of life in New Mexico upon return to U.
Daily Life Townsend Speakman 1st sells fruit-flavored carbonated drinks in Philadelphia. Daily Life Townsend Speakman sells first fruit-flavored carbonated drinks in Philadelphia. Religion The U. Evangelical Association, founded by Jacob Albright , holds its first convention. Reform Women's Suffrage Movement: New Jersey revokes the right of women to vote which it had granted in Politics James Madison is elected as the 4th President of the U. Government Slavery: The United States bans slave trade that involves importing African slaves, but smuggling continues.
Science Sir Humphrey Davy discovers the elements boron and strontium. Steam carriage "Catch Me Who Can" weighes 10 tons and makes 15 mph. Madison, Dolley Dolley Madison accompanies her husband in his campaign for the presidency, influencing many with her charm and tact. Jackson, Rachel Andrew Jackson Jr. Religion Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition in Spain and Italy. Government James Madison is inaugurated as the nation's fourth President and George Clinton is inaugurated as the continuing Vice President.
Government The Illinois Territory, including what is now Wisconsin, is established. Technology Women's Firsts: The first patent given to a woman was to Mary Kies of Connecticut, for a technique for weaving straw with silk and thread. Arts and Letters Architecture: Neoclassicism emerges as a dominant force in British architecture with the construction of Covent Garden Theatre. Madison, Dolley Dolley Madison becomes the first First Lady to attend her husband's inauguration and the first to host an inaugural ball. Economics The U. Economics The "Phoenix" becomes the first sea-going steamship, traveling from New York to Philadelphia.
Joseph in the U. Politics Simon Bolivar emerges as a major figure in South American politics. Science Nicotine is identified and named after Jean Nicot c. Medicine The field of homeopathy is founded by German physician Samuel Hahnemann ; it is not called by this name until Technology Airplanes: Sir George Cayley tries three times to organize an aeronautical society to study the problem of flight, but finds little interest among scientists.
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Education Parochial Education: Elizabeth Seton and her community of sisters founds the first American Catholic parochial school in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Economics Population: The U. Economics The American cotton crop exceeds , bales; American cotton mills quadruple in one year to Sports Boxing: Tom Molineaux , a freed Virginia slave and the first unofficial heavy-weight boxing champion, is defeated in the 40th round in a match in England. Social Issues Native Americans: The Shawnee, under Tecumseh , begin to establish a tribal confederacy to preserve their lands and culture.
Government Scandal: U. Senator Timothy Pickering becomes the first senator to be censured when he reveals confidential documents communicated by the President of the United States John Adams. Science Iodine is isolated by French chemist Bernard Courtois Science William Herschel suggests that a nebula is an early stage in the development of a galaxy.
Science Mary Anning , British geologist, at age 12 is involved in the finding of the first identifiable icthyosaurus and later of a plesiosaur. Local white citizens, not only close the school as a public nuisance, but they also send him to the Williamsburg Lunatic Asylum. Daily Life Disasters: Earthquakes beginning on December 16 cause the Mississippi River to flow upstream for several hours; the town of New Madrid, Missouri, is pushed into the river. Religion The Presbyterian Church in the U. Politics James Madison is re-elected to a second term as President of the U.
Politics The term gerrymander is coined, meaning the practice of dividing a geographic area into voting districts in such a way that one political party is given unfair advantage in an election. The practice is named for Elbridge Gerry, who first thought of doing it, and salamander, because the original voting district resulting from the practice looked like a salamander.
He is not replaced until the general election in the fall, when Elbridge Gerry is elected. Science Georges Couvier discovers that fossils follow an increasing age sequence as one probes deeper into layers of rock and soil. Technology Transportation: Transportation technology is advanced by Scotsman Henry Bell with his new steamboat, the three-horsepower Comet, which sails on the River Clyde. Arts and Letters The final shipment of Elgin Marbles—a group of ancient sculptures and architectural details from the Parthenon obtained from the Turks by Lord Elgin —arrives in England from Greece, giving Londoners their first taste of original classical Greek art.
Petersburg, Russia. Economics Transportation: Railroad History: The first commercially successful steam locomotives, using the Blenkinsop rack and pinion drive, commenced operation on the Middleton Railway. Discovery Swiss historian J. Clark , who is in St. Louis, assumes custody of Jean Baptiste, as well as her daughter, Lisette. Religion Elizabeth Seton formally establishes the Sisters of Charity, the first Catholic sisterhood founded in America, from her earlier community Religion Mother Catherine Spaulding founds the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Kentucky, a home-visiting order of nurses and teachers.
Government James Madison is inaugurated to a second term as President of the U. War War of U. Inventions Railroad History: Englishman William Hedley builds and patents a railroad locomotive which can haul 10 coal wagons at 5 mph, equal to 10 horses. Arts and Letters Poetry: Percy Bysshe Shelley completes his first major work, "Queen Mab"—an anti-religious work, at the age of Religion A choirbook is composed for use in the Spanish missions of the southwest.
Religion American nun Mother Mary Rhodes founds the Sisters of Loretto in Kentucky after establishing two other communities for women west of the Allegheny Mountains. Reform Labor Movement: Leaders of the anti-technology Luddite movement in England are sentenced to hanging or deportation. Tompkins is elected. The Treaty returned conditions between the two countries to those that existed before the war began. Neither side achieved a clear victory. Science Massachusetts physician Jacob Bigelow publishes "Flora Bostoniensis," the standard botany manual for years.
Inventions Railroad History: George Stephenson , British inventor, invents the first steam locomotive, which is used instead of horses and mules to haul coal. Inventions The metronome is invented in Vienna by J. Maelzel Inventions Eli Terry invents a hour shelf clock that uses interchangeable parts. Pulls 30 tons at 4 mph, but is not efficient. Arts and Letters Franz Schubert begins composing Lieder, lyrical songs in the Romantic tradition. Madison, Dolley Dolley Madison is responsible for saving the famous Peale portrait of George Washington, hanging in the White House, and the Declaration of Independence, from the British when they invade the capital.
She leaves the city just ahead of the British troops, who then burn Washington, DC. Economics Francis Cabot Lowell opens the first totally mechanized factory for processing raw cotton into finished cloth. Daily Life The term grapefruit is used for the first time in print, perhaps because its clusters resemble those of grapes. Daily Life Gas street lamps are installed in the first neighborhood—St.
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Margarets, Westminster, in London. War U. Science Sophie Germain is awarded a gold medal from the Institute of France for her essay on elasticity. Medicine The Apothecaries Act in Britain bans the practice of medicine by unqualified doctors. Inventions A harder, smoother road surface made of crushed stones is invented by John McAdam Inventions Railroad History: Stephenson's second engine: 6 wheels and a multitubular boiler. Education Libraries: Thomas Jefferson sells his book collection to the Library of Congress after its original collection was destroyed by the British army.
Arts and Letters The Biedermeier period in art and furniture design begins. Economics Leading imports in the United States are woolen and cotton items, sugar, and coffee. The leading export is cotton. Daily Life Transportation: The Conestoga wagon becomes a major method of transportation, especially among those headed west. Daily Life Dancing: A French ballroom dance, the quadrille, becomes fashionable among the English aristocracy. Woman, however, submits willingly and finds comfort and succor, even in her tears. Law The right to review state court decisions is affirmed by the Supreme Court.
Politics James Monroe is elected 5th President of the U. Science The first book on mineralogy in the U. Medicine Epidemics: Ireland suffers a typhus epidemic that kills about a quarter of its population. Inventions The stethoscope is invented by French physician R. Laennec Inventions The kaleidoscope is invented by Sir David Brewster Education German educator Friedrich Frobel moves his first educational community from Griesheim to Keilau, Thuringia. Ideas Hegel completes his "Science of Logic;" his philosophy of idealism will dominate metaphysics for 25 years.
Daily Life Disasters: The summer of is unusually cold in many parts of the world due to the eruption of the Tambora volcano in Indonesia—perhaps the greatest in recorded history. Government James Monroe is inaugurated as the 5th President of the U. Science Cadmium is discovered independently by Friedrich Stromeyer and Hermann Medicine James Parkinson describes the degenerative disease that will carry his name. Education Early frontier education is influenced by the American Tract Society which spreads religious literature by means of circuit riders.
Education Public Education: A petition presented in the Boston Town Meeting calls for establishing of a system of free public primary schools. Main support comes from local merchants, businessmen and wealthier artisans. Many wage earners oppose it, because they don't want to pay the taxes. Ideas David Ricardo promotes liberal economic theory in his "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation;" his ideas are the foundation of modern economics as a science.
Madison, Dolley The Madisons retire to Montpelier, their estate in Virginia, where Dolley continues her role as hostess and helps her husband, who suffers from arthritis, by taking dictation for his correspondence. She also helps him prepare his papers for future publication. Economics Native Americans: American traders began to compete with Native American tribes for the buffalo fur business. Economics John Jacob Astor obtains a fur trade monopoly in the Mississippi Valley, founding his fortune. Popular Culture Stories of a sea serpent off the coast of Gloucester, Massachusetts tell of a creature 3 feet in diameter and from feet long with a long tongue that shoots out of its mouth.
Government The border between the U. Government American Flag: The Act of April 4, states that 13 stripes and one star for each state will be added to the flag on the 4th of July following the admission of each new state and is signed into action by President Monroe. Science F. Bessel catalogs over 3, stars in his Fundamenta Astronomiae.
Inventions A lathe for making irregularly shaped items such as gun stocks is designed. Education Public Education: Boston public schools offer schooling for children as young as 4 years. Sports Horse Racing: The first professional horse racing occurs in the U. Popular Culture Englishman Thomas Bowdler publishes a censored version of "The Family Shakespeare"; the expression to bowlderize becomes a term for the practice of omitting vulgar words from written works. Law 'In "McCulloch v. Maryland," the Supreme Court expands federal powers by allowing Congress to charter a bank, an act not specifically permitted by the Constitution.
Science Electromagnetism is discovered by Danish physicist Hans C. Oersted Education Slavery: African American Education: Virginia outlaws blacks and a mulatto, whether free or slave, from meeting for the purposes of education and forbids teaching blacks to read and write.
Tyler, Letitia John Tyler Jr. Because of distrust in this new mode of transportation, the vessel does not carry either passengers or cargo. Economics The first commercially produced eating chocolate is produced in Switzerland. Social Issues Immigration: Congress establishes reporting on immigration. Social Issues Slavery: Canada denies the American government the right to pursue runaway slaves within its borders. Reform Labor Movement: Children under the age of 9 are forbidden to work in mills in England; other young workers are limited to hour days.
Calhoun is elected the nation's 7th Vice President. Government Slavery: Congress passes the Missouri Compromise, admitting Maine into the Union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state; slavery becomes excluded from the Union north of the Mason-Dixon Line. Science Andre Marie Ampere , French physicist, discovers the basic processes of electric currents. Education Massachusetts physician John Gorham publishes a 2-volume textbook, "Elements of Chemical Science," which is the standard for years. Education Public Education: First public high school in the U.
She is the third of ten First Ladies born in New York, the "mother state" of presidential wives. Taylor, Margaret Margaret Smith Taylor , daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, dies October 22 from malaria three months after the death of her sister. Fillmore, Abigail While teaching in New Hope, Abigail Fillmore begins a campaign to raise funds for the first circulating library in New York. Economics The percentage of people working in agriculture begins to decline as family farms are gobbled up by larger agricultural businesses.
At the same time, cities grow tremendously, fueled by new manufacturing industries. Discovery Nathanial Palmer becomes the first person to actually see the land mass of Antartica. Discovery The statue of the Venus de Milo c. This law is later extended to free blacks in the city as well. Government Mexico declares independence from Spain. Santa Fe Trail opened to international trade. Government James Monroe is inaugurated to a second term as President of the U. Calhoun is inaugurated as the nation's 7th Vice President.
Government New State: Missouri becomes the 24th state to join the Union as a slave state. Technology Sound reproduction is demonstrated by Sir Charles Wheatstone Economics Population: The fourth census shows that the population of the U. Religion The first Catholic cathedral to be dedicated in the U. Reform Black Suffrage Movement: Nearly all property qualifications required to vote are abolished by the New York state constitution, but the state continues to deny suffrage to Blacks. Reform Abolition Movement: Benjamin Lundy , Quaker saddle maker, begins publishing his anti-slavery newspaper, Genius of Universal Emancipation.
Government Presidents: Ulysses S. Grant , 18th President of the U. Government Presidents: Rutherford B. Hayes , 19th President of the U. Science A theory of evolution, subsequently proved to be in error, is published by Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medicine Observations of human gastric juices are begun by U. Army physician William Beaumont His observations are made on a sailor who suffered a bullet wound in the stomach that did not quite heal. Inventions The first patent for making false teeth is obtained by W.
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Arts and Letters Franz Liszt , Hungarian pianist, makes his debut at age Arts and Letters The diorama, paintings illuminated in a dark room to give the illusion of reality, is invented by Daguerre and Bouton. Economics Cotton mills in Massachusetts begin using water-powered machinery. Daily Life Molly Pitcher, a. Mary McCauley , is awarded a pension by the state of Pennsylvania. Sports Soccer: Yale prohibits the playing of football soccer ; violators are fined.
Social Issues Slavery: An informer reveals a plot led by Denmark Vesey , a free black man, for a massive slave uprising in South Carolina. Thirty-five blacks, including Vessey, are hanged, and severely repressive slave codes are passed in the South. Reform Slavery: Liberia is founded as a colony for blacks fleeing America.
Government James Monroe presents his Monroe Doctrine, stating that any attempts by Europeans to interfere in the Americas will be considered an affront to the national interest of the U. Medicine The first ophthalmology book in the U. Inventions Computers: Early attempts to build a calculating machine computer are made by Charles Babbage Inventions A waterproof fabric is invented by Charles Macintosh Education Teacher Education: The first private normal school for training teachers in the U. Education The first gymnasium offering systematic instruction is started by the Round Hill School in Massachusetts.
Gymnastics is scheduled from 5 to 7 p. Sports Football: Football is invented by a year-old British rugby player when, against the rules of rugby, he takes up the ball and runs with it. Sports Horse Racing: The first great U. Calhoun is re-elected as Vice President. Government National Capital: The Capitol Rotunda is completed; it is the connecting space between the House of Representatives and the Senate sides of the building. Government Native Americans: The U. Education Emma Willard writes a widely-used textbook, "Ancient Geography. Education The first science and engineering school in the U.
Education Mary Randolph publishes "The Virginia Housewife," intended to instruct novice wives. Government Native Americans: Congress adopts a policy of removal of eastern Indian tribes to territory west of the Mississippi River; whites settle on Indian lands. Calhoun is inaugurated as the continuing Vice President. Government Native Americans: A treaty is established between the U. Science Georges Couvier suggests that alterations in the earth causing extinction of whole animal species are associated with great natural catastrophes. Adams, Louisa Louisa Adams becomes the first First Lady to write her autobiography, which she called "Adventures of a Nobody.
Economics The New York Stock Exchange opens, trading mostly canal, turnpike, mining, and gas lighting companies. Discovery Alexander Gordon Laing is the first explorer to reach Timbuktu in what is now Mali. Daily Life Duncan Phyfe begins producing furniture in the Empire style.
Reform Labor Movement: In Boston, master carpenters strike for a hour day. Reform Utopian Movement: A community of slaves is organized by Frances Wright , designed to help them get ready for freedom. Politics Third Parties: The first third party in the U. Inventions The first permanent photograph is produced by J.
Niepce , a French scientist. Inventions Samuel Morey patents an internal combustion engine.
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Inventions The first reflecting telescope is built in the U. Inventions Bassell designs a pendulum that takes exactly one second per swing. Arts and Letters The U. Academy of Design is founded by Samuel F. Morse Lincoln, Mary Mary Todd enters the academy of Dr. John Ward; stays until she is Louis, Missouri. Social Issues Native Americans: The Creek Indians sign the Treaty of Washington, which voids the previous treaty and cedes less land to the government; it requires the Indians to move in Politics Sectional differences in the U. Government Joint occupation of the Oregon territory is agreed upon by the U.
Science The mammalian ovum egg is discovered, proving that mammals do develop from eggs. Education The first nautical school in America is opened in Nantucket, Massachusetts. Education Public Education: Massachusetts requires every town with or more families to establish a public high school. Education Public Education: Massachusetts passes a law making all grades of public school open to all pupils free of charge. Economics Transportation: The first public transit system—horse-drawn busses—appear in New York City.
It was the first westward bound railroad in America. It is the second railroad in the U. Daily Life Newspapers: The first newspaper for blacks in the U. Daily Life Cincinnati is considered the Queen City of the west, at least for a time before the rise of Chicago. Daily Life Karl Baedeker begins publishing his travel guides. Religion The Second Great Awakening, an era of intense, emotional religious revivalism, makes a large impression across the country. Calhoun is re-elected Vice President. Government Railroad History: Congress authorizes the construction of the first state-owned railway in Pennsylvania.
Government The so-called Tariff of Abominations, imposing duties on manufactured goods is passed. Medicine Dr. Hopff first uses the term "hemophilia" in describing the blood disease. Education Noah Webster publishes his "American Dictionary of the English Language," with 70, definitions, including many words derived from immigrant and Native American languages.