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Muslims believe Allah reveals Himself through the natural world. Nature is perfect, so therefore Allah must be its creator. Similarly, the way in which the world works so perfectly, for example through the laws of science , shows that Allah must have designed the world. Muslims believe that their conscience can give them a sense of what Allah would like them to do. The Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said:. This quote shows that if Muslims feel their conscience is telling them something, it should be followed. Conscience can also be used to decide on things that are neither expressly forbidden nor explicitly allowed.
However, conscience should not be used as a substitute for the Qur'an or Sunnah. Some Muslims believe that the human ability to make sense of things is given by Allah and that Allah reveals himself to Muslims through their own sense of reason. For Muslims:. As with all believers, Muslims may not find it easy to use their God-given reason to interpret the revelations of Allah's will in the Qur'an. For non-Arabic speakers it may be difficult to understand or to explain the content of the Qur'an, as some believe that key words and concepts can only be fully understood in the original Arabic.
And there are some teachings in the Qur'an which may appear at first sight to contradict Muslim morality, or fit uneasily with widely accepted modern values.
It should also be noted that the hadiths of Prophet Muhammad, despite their eloquence and profound meanings, are completely different and distinct from the Qur'anic verses and anyone familiar with the Arabic language can verify this. This, by itself, is another piece of evidence for the idea that the wording of the Qur'an is not from the Prophet.
Tafsir is a profound Arabic term.
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Technically it means to clarify and explain the hidden or concealed aspects of a text. Sometimes a text may convey different possibilities or alternative meanings. Therefore it would need an act of interpretation, or tafsir, to define what is really meant by the speaker or the writer. Sometimes a text has a clear and apparent meaning, but there might be some more fundamental or underlying levels of meaning.
Here tafsir would involve an act of unveiling and exposing those inner meanings. A sound tafsir can never be in conflict with the outer meaning. In other words, an acceptable tafsir is the one, which is able to show how the outer meaning refers to the inner meaning and the inner meaning, in turn, refers back to the outer meaning.
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Abi Talib, the cousin and son in law of the Prophet who was brought up in the house of the Prophet. Amongst the companions of the Prophet Ibn Abbas d.
After Ibn Abbas, his outstanding disciple Mujahid became prominent in the field of tafsir. Recent editions of this work are published in 30 volumes. Amongst the Shi'a Muslims the oldest works on tafsir belongs to Ali b. Ibrahim from Qum and Furat from Kufa who lived in the third and early fourth century. In what follows, first the major methods will be discussed and then the focus will move to the one that is, in my view, the most promising. This is certainly one of the oldest methods of tafsir. People who adopt this method try to explain the meaning of the verse only when there are relevant hadiths.
Therefore, whenever they find no hadith they may keep silent. Among the Shi'a, Tafsir by Ali b. Ibrahim d. Hashim Bahrani d. Huwayzi d. In fact, in some cases, the same person might have different styles in different works, such as Ibn Arabi. Hawazin A. Although this type of tafsir can be found among earlier works of tafsir it has become more popular in this century.
People who adopt this method of tafsir hold that the modern science is the most certain knowledge and embodies a very fruitful if not the most fruitful achievement of mankind. Tafsir al-Maraghi by Ahmad ibn Mustafa al-Maraghi d. In some of these works, the authors deny supernatural facts such as angels or jinn, or miracles of the prophets such as the revival of the dead.
For example, sometimes Satan is interpreted as some infective germs that cause problems in the neurotic system of our body. He was also a very spiritual man. Due to the importance of Al-Mizan, I would like to end this paper by quoting the following passage from An Introduction to al-Mizan by the martyr Abu al-Qasim Razzaqi:.
For the understanding of the verses and their interpretation, we should seek help from the Qur'an itself. Ayyashi, Muhammad b. Kulayni, Muhammad A. Raghib Isfahani, Husayn b. M ohammad A. Full text is available online at Al-Mizan website. And tr. Reynold Alleyne Nicholson. Tehran: Nashr-e Buteh. Wahy here consists in divine instructions about where to live, what to eat and what sort of behaviour to have. David's distinction was the Psalms, some of which are still extant. I leave among you two precious things: the Book of God and my household.
As long as you hold on to them you will not go astray. For different versions of this hadith and its sources and interpretation, see M. Skip to main content. View this page in our App.
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View View. Authors s :. Mohammad Ali Shomali. Reflecting on the verses in which the term or one of its cognates is used to refer to the divine act of giving messages, we can classify them according to who the recipients are into the following categories: a. The Prophets, of whom Moses is more frequently mentioned. The disciples of Jesus or mother of Moses d. Angels e. The bee f. The heavens. All the prophets were recipients of divine revelation.
A suggestion thrown by God into the heart or mind of a prophet, by which he understands the substance of the message, whether it is a command or prohibition, or an explanation of a great truth; ii. The angel deposits the revelation in the spirit of the prophet, without appearing to him. In the first instance of divine revelation to the Prophet, he was asked: "Read! For example, "Alif Lam Ra. The Qur'an says: "A messenger from God, reciting purified pages". For example: "And if anyone of the pagans seeks your protection then grant him protection — so that he may hear the Word of God — and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are a people who know not".
The Qur'an says: "For we shall charge you with a speech of weight". For example, God says: "And when We read it, follow its reading! For example, God says in the Qur'an: "These are the signs of God which We recite for you in truth, and you are indeed one of the apostles". The prophet was told: "… and recite the Qur'an in a measured tone". Wahy wa Nubuwwat, Tehran: Sadra , S. For example, see Mufradaat Alfaz al-Qur'an, p. One of those exceptions is related to Zachariah.
When he received the good news of having a child, he asked God for a sign.
Eschatology between Reason and Revelation: Death and Resurrection in Modern Islamic Theology
The sign was not being able to talk for three nights. Commenting on the phrase, "We revealed to them [the prophets] the performance of good deeds" in the verse , 'Allamah Tabataba'i asserts that one type of wahy is what he calls "tasdidiy" i. This involves practical divine support for the person in order to perform good deeds.
See Al-Mizan, Vol. Usul al-Kafi, Vol. Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. Ibid, p. The saints next in rank to the Qutb, who is the head of the spiritual hierarchy. Nicholson Commenting on these verses, A Yusuf Ali says: The list here given is in three groups. Muslim narrates a tradition that the Prophet said: "His veil is Light: were He to withdraw it, then would the august splendours of His countenance surely consume everything that comes within His Sight.
Al-Mizan, Vol. This idea is also clearly mentioned in the hadiths of the Prophet and his household. For example, arguing for the need for the prophethood and revelation from God, Imam Rida argues that there was a need to appoint infallible ma'sum apostles to convey divine commands and prohibitions and etiquettes to the people and inform them about what benefits them or harms them, since they could not understand these by themselves Bihar al-Anwar, Vol.
Therefore, the real task of tafsir starts just after defining the following: - The lexical meaning: This is deduced from the root of the word. In his Preface to Al-Mizan, Allamah Tabataba'i writes: "As a direct result of this method, we have never felt any need to interpret a verse against its apparent meaning. As we have said earlier, this type of interpretation is in fact misinterpretation". For a comprehensive discussion on this issue, see Al-Tafsir wa al-Mufassirun, Vol.
Allamah Tabatab'i has a special idea about ta'wil, in which he basically takes the ta'wil to mean the reality to which the text refers. For his view on ta'wil, see e. Al- Mizan, Vol.
Islamic revelation in the modern world | UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI LIBRARY
For example, refer to the beginning of the Chapter Friday and the verse 44 of the Chapter the Bee. Al-Itqan, II. The hadith of Thaqalayn has been narrated in major sources of all schools of Islam. Despite minor differences in the wording the essence remains the same in all versions of the tradition. For example, see Denffer, p. Ibid, Vol. For a very detailed discussion about this type of tafsir and its assessment, see Al-Tafsir wa al-Mufassirun, Vol.
For example, see Al-Manar, Vol. Article Theme image:. Thank you for submitting your question. In order to forward it to the selected Scholars and Experts, we need you to sign in first.